Project Resources

Linklist of the Berlin microscopic society, including individual scientists' and amateur sites a well as companies, societies, laboratories and historical information.
This site leads to several links and discussion forums. (English and German)
Medicine Dept of Keele University: This page provides links to useful professional, amateur and commercial Microscopy and related web sites as to associated techniquesas tissue preparation, fixation, sectioning, staining and visualising.
This Site of the Spanish Institute for Material Science has many links to international sites.
Commented Linklist on the history of microscopy.
The site calls itself a resource for microscope enthusiasts, including a monthly online magazin Micscape and the Micropolitan Museum with microscopic art forms.

Historical Sites:
This site on antique scientific instruments has bright fotos of machines as well as features on microscopes.

On the history of the microscope and some of its curiosities (in German).
This virtual museum presents German and French Microscopes of three centuries, detailed pictures and research.
The Golub Collection consists of historical microscopes of three centuries. The site also has a small bibliography.
The Whipple Museum features a site on microscopes, including articles on a historical slide used by Michael Faraday in a lecture of on Darwin's microscopes

The Helmholtz Centre features a historical slide as object of the month 2007.

Sources, Readings

Remark: The documents with an leading icon are downloadable. If you wish to have access to the full text of other documents, please contact the Project Coordination: Hanna-Lotte Lund

Primary sources

Lionel S  Beale, 1854. The Microscope, and its Application to ClinicalMedicine. London: Highley.

Document mime-type: application/pdf V1_Beale,1854.pdf Lionel S Beale, 1854 2008-08-31 12:06

Professor John Balfour, 1860, The botanist's companion, or, Directions for the use of the microscope and for the collection and preservation of plants : with a glossary of botanical terms, Edinburgh : A. and C. Black.

Document mime-type: application/pdf V2_Balfour, 1860.pdf Professor John Balfour, 1860 2008-08-31 12:05

Lionel S. Beale, 1880, How to work with the microscope, London : Harrison: Philadelphia : Lindsay and Blakiston, 5th ed.

Document mime-type: application/pdf V2_Beale 1880.pdf Lionel S. Beale, 1880 2017-01-03 11:25

Simon Flexner and James Thomas Flexner , 1938, William Henry Welch and the Heroic Age of American Medicine,, New York, Dover Publications , pp. 82-85 ( on uses of slide collections in pathology).

Document mime-type: application/pdf V1_Flexner, 1938.pdf Simon Flexner and James Thomas Flexner , 1938 2008-08-31 12:07


Gilbert Morgan Smith, 1915,  The development of botanical microtechnique, Trans Amer Micro Soc 34 ,71-129.

Document mime-type: application/pdf V1_Smith, technique1915.pdf Gilbert Morgan Smith, 1915 2008-08-31 12:07

F B Mallory, 1938,  Pathological technique,   Philadelphia: Saunders.

Document mime-type: application/pdf V1_Malory1938.pdf F B Mallory, 1938 2008-08-31 12:08

G. Clark & F. H. Kasten 1983,  History of Staining.  Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 3ed 1983.
Clark, Kasten, stain83

R. Garner and  C.V. Morie,  1984, "The conservation and preparation of microscopic slides of mosses", Studies in Conservation, 29 (2): 93-99.
Garner, slides84

Brian Bracegirdle, 1986, A history of microtechnique : the evolution of the microtome and the development of tissue preparation , (2nd ed.)    Lincolnwood, IL : Science Heritage Ltd.
Bricegridle86 part 1,
Bricegridle86 part 2,
Bricegridle86 part 3


James H. Cassedy, 1976,"The microscope in American medical science", Isis, 67(1), 76-97.

Emily Pawley, 2001,“The many ‘odd things,’ which a microscopist delights to own:”Aspects of Nineteenth-Century Popular Microscopy". (Unpublished text)
Pawley, microscope01

Christoph Hoffman and Jutta Schickore, 2001,"Secondary matters: On disturbances, contamination and waste as objects of research", Perspectives on Science, 9(2): 123-125.
Hoffman, waste01

Stephan Jacyna, 2003, "Moral fibre: The negotiation  of microscope fact in Victorian Britain", Journal of History of Biology, 36: 39-85.
Jacyna, moral03

Jutta Schickore, 2003,  "Cheese mites and other delicacies : the introduction of test objects into microscopy", Endeavour Vol. 27, (3) : 134-138.
Schickore, mites03

Jutta Schickore, 2003,  “The ‘Philosophical Grasp of the Appearances’ and Experimental Microscopy: Johannes Müller’s Microscopical Research,” 1824-1832, Studies in History and Philosophy of Biology and Biomedical Sciences 2003, 34, 569-592.
Schickore, muller03

Ann La Berge, 2004, "Debate as scientific practice in nineteenth century Paris: The controversy over the microoscope", Perspectives on Science, 12(4): 424-453.
LaBerge, microscop04

Jutta Schickore, 2005, "“ Through thousands of  errors we reach the truth" but how? On the epistemic roles of error in scientific practice" , Studies in the History and Philosphy of
Science, 36: 539-556.
Schickore, error05


Owen G. Harry, 1984,  "The Hon. Mrs. Ward and "A windfall for the microscope" of 1856 and 1854", Annals of Science 41: 471-482.
Harry, windfall84

Stephan Jacyna, 2001,  “"A Host of Experienced Microscopists": The Establishment of Histology in Nineteenth-Century Edinburgh.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 75: 225-253.
Jacyna, histology01

Hans Joerg Rheinberger, 2004, "Preparations - ‘Representations’ of Themselves " English version of Epistemologica: Präparate", unpublished .
Rheinberger, preparations, Eng04

Hans-Joerg Rheinberger, 2005,  "Epistemologica: Präparate". In: Dingwelten. Das Museum als Erkenntnisort. Hrsg. von Anke te Heesen und Petra Lutz. Böhlau, Köln-Weimar-Wien, pp. 65-75.
Rheinberger. prep05

Heini Hakasolo, 2005, "The brain under the knife: serial secionning and the development of late nineteenth century neuroanatomy", Studies in the  History and Philosphy of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, 37:172-202.

Cells and tissues

Graeme N.  Gooday,  1997. "Instrumentation and Interpretation: Managing and Representing the Working Environment of Victorian Experimental Science", in Bernard  Lightman, (ed.), Victorian Science in Context. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 409-437.
Gooday,  experiment.97

Nick Hopwood, 1999, "‘Giving body’ to embryos: Modeling, mechanism and the 
microtome in late nineteenth-century anatomy. Isis,  90: 462-96.
Hopwood, embryos99

Ohad Parnes, 2000,  “The Envisioning of Cells.” Science in Context 13: 71-92.
Parnes, cells00

Hannah Landecker,  2002, "New times for biology: nerve cultures and the advent of cellular life in vitro", Studies in History and Philosoph of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, 33: 667-694.
Landecker, nerve02

Andrew Mendelsohn, 2003,  "Lives of the cell", Journal of History of Biology, 36:1-37.
Mendelsohn, cell04

Hans-Joerg Rheinberger, 2006,   'In vitro", unpublished text;
Rheinberger, in vitro06

Nick Hopwood, 2007,  "Artist versus Anatomist, Models against Dissection:
Paul Zeiller of Munich and the Revolution of 1848", Medical History, in press.


Thomas Schlich, 1995,  "Wichtiger als des genestand selbst": Die Bedeutung des fotographishen bilden in der Begründung der bakteriologischen Krankheitsauffassung durch Robert Koch", in Neue Wege in der Seuchengeschichte, Martin Dinges & Thomas Schlich (eds.), Franz Steiner: Sttugart, pp. 143-174.
Schlich, Koch95

Olaf Breidbach, 2002,  "Representation of the microcosm-The claim for objectivity in 19th century scientific microphotography", Journal of the History of Biology, 35:221-250.
Breitbach, microphotography02

Hannah Landecker, 2005, "Cellular fratures: Microcinematography and cell theory", Critical Inquiry 31:903-937.
Landecker, film05

Hannah Landecker, 2006, "Microcinematogrhapy and history of science and film", Isis, 97:121-132.
Landecker, microcine06

Visual cultures

Silke Wenk, 1999,  Zeigen und Schweigen. Der kunsthistorische Diskurs und die Diaprojektion. In: Konfigurationen. Zwischen Kunst und Medien, hrsg. von Sigrid Schade u. Georg Christoph Tholen, München, 292-305.
Wenk, diapo99

Bernard Lightman, 2000,  “The Visual Theology of Victorian Popularizers of Science. From Reverent Eye to Chemical Retina.” Isis, 91: 651-680.
Lightman, visual00

Robert S. Nelson, 2000, The Slide Lecture, or the Work of Art „History“ in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. In: Critical Inquiry 26(3): 414-434.
Nelson, slides00

Ivan Morus, 2006, "Seeing and Believing Science," Isis, 97(1):  101-110.
Morus, latern06

Anke te Heesen, 2005,  Verkehrsformen der Objekte. In: Anke te Heesen and Petra Lutz: Dingwelten. Das Museum als Erkenntnisort. Weimar und Wien, pp. 53-64.
te Hessen, objects05